Substance-dependent patients automatically and involuntarily allocate their attention to drug cues in the environment, a process referred to as attentional bias. Attentional bias is increased during periods of subjective craving and predictive of treatment outcome and relapse in substance dependence. Despite recent theoretical and clinical advances with regard to attentional bias, the underlying neurobiological mechanisms are largely unknown. The […] read more
Luijten, M., Veltman, D.J., Van den Brink, W., Hester, R., Field, M., Smits, M., Franken, I.H.A. (2011) Neurobiological substrate of smoking-related attentional bias, NeuroImage, 54(3), 2374-2381.
Luijten, M., Van Meel, C.S., Franken, I.H.A. (2011) Diminished error processing in smokers during smoking cue exposure, Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 97(3), 514-520.
Deficits in error processing may contribute to the continuation of impulsive behaviors such as smoking. Previous studies show deficits in error processing among substance abuse patients. However, these studies were all conducted during affectively neutral conditions. Deficits in error processing in smokers may become more pronounced under affectively challenging conditions, such as during smoking cue exposure. The aim […] read more
Luijten, M., Littel, M. & Franken, I.H.A. (2011) Deficits in inhibitory control in smokers during a Go/NoGo task: An investigation using event-related potentials, PLOS One, 6(4), e18898.
Introduction: The role of inhibitory control in addictive behaviors is highlighted in several models of addictive behaviours. Although reduced inhibitory control has been observed in addictive behaviors, it is inconclusive whether this is evident in smokers. Furthermore, it has been proposed that drug abuse individuals with poor response inhibition may experience greater difficulties not consuming substances in the […] read more
Littel, M., van den Berg, I., Luijten, M., van Rooij, A.J., Keemink, L., Franken, I.H.A. (2012) Error-processing and response inhibition in excessive computer game players: an ERP study, Addiction Biology, 17(5), 934-947.
Excessive computer gaming has recently been proposed as a possible pathological illness. However, research on this topic is still in its infancy and underlying neurobiological mechanisms have not yet been identified. The determination of underlying mechanisms of excessive gaming might be useful for the identification of those at risk, a better understanding of the behavior and the development […] read more
Luijten, M., Veltman, D.J., Hester, R., Smits, M., Pepplinkhuizen, L., Franken, I.H.A. (2012) Brain activation associated with attentional bias in smokers is modulated by a dopamine antagonist, Neuropsychopharmacology, 37(13), 2772-9.
Attentional bias in substance-dependent individuals is the tendency to automatically direct the attention to substance-related cues in the environment. Attentional bias is known to be associated with clinical measures such as relapse or successful quitting in smokers. It has been suggested that attentional bias emerges as a consequence of dopaminergic activity evoked by substance-related cues. The current functional […] read more
Marhe, R., Luijten, M., Van de Wetering, B.J.M., Smits, M., Franken, I.H.A. (2013) Individual differences in anterior cingulate activation associated with attentional bias predict cocaine use after treatment, Neuropsychopharmacology, 38(6), 1085-93.
Drug dependent patients often relapse into drug use after treatment. Behavioral studies show that enhanced attentional bias to drug cues is a precursor of relapse. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study examined whether brain regions involved in attentional bias are predictive of cocaine use after treatment. Attentional bias related brain-activity was measured with a cocaine Stroop […] read more
Jager, G., Block, R.I., Luijten, M., Ramsey, N.F. (2013) Tentative Evidence for Striatal Hyperactivity in Adolescent Cannabis Using Boys: A Cross-Sectional Multicenter fMRI Study, Journal of Psychoactive drugs, 45(2), 156-167.
Abstract—Adolescents’ risk-taking behavior has been linked to a maturational imbalance between reward (“go”) and inhibitory-control (“stop”)-related brain circuitry. This may drive adolescent drug–taking, such as cannabis use. In this study, we assessed the non-acute effects of adolescent cannabis use on reward-related brain function. We performed a two-site (United States and Netherlands; pooled data) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) […] read more
Luijten, M., Veltman, D.J., Hester, R., Smits, M., Nijs, I.M., Pepplinkhuizen, L., Franken, I.H.A. (2013) The role of dopamine in inhibitory control in smokers and non-smokers: a pharmacological fMRI study, European Neuropsychopharmacology, 23(10), 1247–1256
Contemporary theoretical models of substance dependence posit that deficits in inhibitory control play an important role in substance dependence. The neural network underlying inhibitory control and its association with substance dependence have been widely investi- gated. However, the pharmacology of inhibitory control is still insufficiently clear. The aims of the current study were twofold. First, […] read more
Luijten, M., O’Connor, D.A., Rossiter, S., Franken, I.H.A., Hester, R. (2013) Effects of reward and punishment on brain activations associated with inhibitory control in cigarette smokers, Addiction, 108(11), 1969-78
Background and aims Susceptibility to use of addictive substances may result, in part, from a greater preference for an immediate small reward relative to a larger delayed reward or relative insensitivity to punishment. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study examined the neural basis of inhibiting an immediately rewarding stimulus to obtain a larger delayed reward in smokers. […] read more
Hester , R., Luijten, M. (in press) Neural correlates of attentional bias in addiction, CNS Spectrums
A small but growing neuroimaging literature has begun to examine the neural mechanisms underlying the difficulty that substance-use dependent (SUD) groups have with ignoring salient, drug-related stimuli. Drug-related attentional bias appears to implicate the countermanding forces of cognitive control and reward salience. Basic cognitive neuroscience research suggests that ignoring emotionally evocative stimuli in our environment requires both up-regulation […] read more